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Basic knowledge of the types of windows and some of the advantages or disadvantages of each will go a long way in helping you to understand your options and making a wise buying decision. Below are the most common types of replacement windows, currently available from major manufacturers.
Single-Hung/Double Hung
In double-hung units, both sashes slide vertically. Only the bottom sash slides upward in a single-hung window. Ventilation area can vary from a small crack to an opening of one-half the total glass area. Screens can be placed on the exterior or interior of the window unit.

Casement
Casement windows are hinged at the sides. Hinged windows such as casements generally have lower air leakage rates than sliding windows from the same manufacturer because the sash closes by pressing against the frame. Casement windows project outward, providing significantly better ventilation than sliders of equal size. Because the sash protrudes from the plane of the wall, it can be controlled to catch passing breezes, but screens must be placed on the interior side.

Awning
Awning windows are hinged at the top and open outward. Hinged windows such as awnings generally have lower air leakage rates than sliding windows from the same manufacturer because the sash closes by pressing against the frame. Screens are placed on the interior of the window unit.

 
Bay Window
A bay window is made up of three or more windows. The side or flanker units project out from the building in 30, 45, or 90 degree angles. The center is parallel with building wall and is made up of one or more windows. All the units can be stationary, operating, or any combination thereof.

 
Bow Window
A series of four or more adjoining window units, commonly five in number, installed on a radius from the wall of the building.
 
Fixed Frame
Refers to windows that are non-venting or inoperable. Commonly referred to as "Picture Window"
 
Garden Window
A decorative window, which installed in a standard window opening, extends outward, providing a large sash, typically used for plants or other decorative objects. Side ventilation allows for precise control of heat/humidity, and allows for more light to enter, due to increased glass area. Ideal for kitchens where counter space if at a premium.

 
Slider
Both sashes slide horizontally in a double-sliding window. Only one sash slides in a single-sliding window. Ventilation area can vary from a small crack to an opening of one-half the total glass area. Screens can be placed on the exterior or interior of the window unit.
 


Window Diagram

1. Head
The main horizontal member forming the top of the window or door frame.
Diagram of window
2. Jamb
The main vertical members forming the sides of a window or door frame.
3. Frame
The enclosure in which window sash or door panels are mounted.
4. Glazing
Glass in a window or door; the act or process of fitting with glass.
5. Pane
A framed sheet of glass within a window.
6. Sash
A single assembly of stiles and rails made into a frame for holding glass.
7. Sill
The main horizontal member forming the bottom of the frame of a window or door.
8. Muntin Bar
Any small bar that divides a windows glass. Also called a grille or windowpane divider.

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